Azure Queue storage is a service for storing large numbers of messages that can be accessed from anywhere in the world via authenticated calls using HTTP or HTTPS. It provides cloud messaging between application components. In designing applications for scale, application components are often decoupled, so that they can scale independently. Queue storage delivers asynchronous messaging for communication between application components, whether they are running in the cloud, on the desktop, on an on-premises server, or on a mobile device. Queue storage also supports managing asynchronous tasks and building workflows.
There are two ways to manage resources in Azure: Classic and Resource Manager. Resource Manager is the recommended way now, you can read more about resource manager at Azure Resource Manager overview. Microsoft will enable Resource Manager for every service that is important for future solutions, but until the support is consistent, you need to know the current status for each service. For example it is possible to use Azure Storage cmdlets in a resource manager context, you can mix them easily.
Azure PowerShell is a set of modules that provide command line interface to Azure. You can accomplish almost everything using Azure PowerShell. It's obvious now that Microsoft investing lots of effort into command line tools for its products and it's great! There are two command line interfaces implementation - PowerShell and Azure CLI. Personally I don't use Azure CLI very often because I primary work on windows systems, but people who work with *nix systems are first-class citizens now in Microsoft world, so they have their own tool. The funny thing is that Microsoft released PowerShell for Linux. So developers can use both Azure PowerShell and Azure CLI regardless operation system they use.